50–62 cm; 198–258 g. Bill red; head green shading to grey on the nape and lower face; black chin and malar bar to side of the neck were replaced by a broad pink-red bar
round hindneck; upper body yellow-green shading deeper on wings and belly; long reddish patch on lesser wing-coverts; tail green basally shading through pale blue-green to yellowish tip, with outer feathers green with yellowish tips. Female
duller, with no black on the chin or pink collar. Immature like a female. Race nipalensis
larger, purportedly with more blue than grey in the head; magnirostris
has a larger bill, narrow blue band above the pink collar, brighter wing-patch; Avensis has yellowish neck; siamensis has yellowish-green face and neck, with blue wash on nape; last three all have narrower black markings on chin and neck.
Editor’s Note: This article requires further editing work to merge existing content into the appropriate Subspecies sections. Please bear with us while this update takes place.
Some of the currently accepted races may be representative of clines, with race nipalensis particularly weak. Five subspecies currently recognized.
Status unclear in India W coast (S from Bombay), where few reports, maybe escapees.
Introduced to parts of Europe (Germany, Belgium, Netherlands), Middle East (Turkey, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates, Iran), and C Japan.
Psittacula eupatria nipalensis Scientific name definitions
Psittacula eupatria eupatria Scientific name definitions
Psittacula eupatria magnirostris Scientific name definitions
Psittacula eupatria avensis Scientific name definitions
Psittacula eupatria siamensis Scientific name definitions
Editor’s Note: Additional distribution information for this taxon can be found in the ‘Subspecies’ article above. In the future, we will develop a range-wide distribution article.
Dry and moist deciduous lowland forest and wooded areas including mangroves, coconut plantations, and old gardens, penetrating desert regions where trees grow by water, normally rising to 800 m, in places at least occasionally to 1600 m, occupying subtropical pine zone of Pinus roxburghii in Pakistan; at least formerly occupied mangroves in the Sunderbans, Bangladesh.
Resident, but also nomadic and locally migratory in N India.
Diet and Foraging
Fruits, e.g. guavas (Psidium guajava), and seeds, the nectar of Salmalia, Butea, and Erythrina, fleshy petals of Bassia latifolia, and young leaves of vegetables. Flocks do considerable damage in orchards and ripening cereal crops. Over 70% of food in the stomachs of birds from agricultural areas, W Pakistan, was from cultivated sources.
Sounds and Vocal Behavior
Generally loud and harsh, or piercing, and repertoire very varied. Calls include a nasal “kyah”, a piercing “keeh”, a rolling “rrrrah” or “currree”, etc. Calls usually repeated in well-spaced loose series, but also involve squabbling conversational strophes.
Nov–Apr. Nest in a hole in coconut palm or large softwood like Salmalia, sometimes the hardwood Shorea and Dalbergia, and mangroves Sonneratia and Heretiera; Terminalia recorded in Sri Lanka. Normally 3–4 eggs, but 2–3 in Andamans; incubation 19–21 days.
Not globally threatened. Currently considered Near Threatened. CITES II. Common in Pakistan and relatively sparse in India, has declined steeply in Sri Lanka, where now rare and mainly confined to the N. However, in N Indian subcontinent, and on Andamans is common, and much used locally as a pet. Apparently only in modest numbers in Myanmar. In Thailand, nest robbery is exterminating the population. Seemingly scarce, probably for similar reasons, in Indochina, and in 1995 absent from at least one area where formerly common.