Budgie mutations

Budgie mutations
Budgie Mutations: The budgie bird has many mutations, in this article, we gonna talk about all color genetics in budgie parakeets and all mutations, The Budgie Parakeet is a species of bird in Australia of the family Psittacidae. It is the only species in the genus Melopsittacus and tribe Melopsittacini.
  • Life expectancy:5 – 8 years (In captivity)
  • Length:18 cm (Adult, Wild)
  • Scientific Name: Melopsittacus undulatus
  • Weight:30 – 40 g (Adult, Wild)
  • Brood size:4 – 6
  • Conservation status: Least Concern (Increasing)
  • Top Classification: Melopsittacus

Budgie colors

color budgies

The List of budgie colors:

  • Dark
  • Opaline
  • Blue
  • Yellow mask 1
  • Yellow mask 2
  • Golden mask
  • Gray wings
  • Light wings
  • Fullbody
  • Diluted
  • Ino
  • Recessive Ino
  • Texas Light Body
  • Cinnamon
  • Slate
  • Violet
  • Dominant grey
  • Recessive grey
  • Anthracite
  • Bronze fallow
  • English Fallow
  • Scottish Fallow
  • Australian Fallow
  • Dominant clear body
  • Danish magpie
  • Australian Magpie
  • Dutch magpie
  • Pearl
  • Black face
  • Dark wings
  • Faded
  • Saddlebacked
  • Mottled
  • Frosted
  • Brown wings

Mutant budgie

A mutation is in a way a sudden and unforeseen change in the physical appearance of the offspring of a pair of parakeets. It is not caused by an external factor (light or dark, food), either the environment or living conditions.

This takes place on the genetic basis of the budgie. Chromosomes are composed of genes and are the concrete carriers of hereditary traits. Those responsible for an individual’s sex are the sex chromosomes. In the mammalian world, the male carries two different chromosomes named X and Y. The female will carry identical chromosomes named X and X. In birds it is the opposite, the male is XX and the female is XY.
The mutation is therefore an accidental change in the number of chromosomes or the shape of one of them. Or because of the alteration of a gene.

In budgies, mutations are colored and sometimes shaped (for example, the wavy crested parakeet). These mutations are hereditary, and they are recognized from the birth of the parakeet, they can not occur in adulthood.

Let’s get down to business, with some vocabulary first and foremost to understand what’s next:

  • Homozygous: budgie which for a chosen trait carries the same gene on each chromosome of the chromosomal pair (chromosomes are always in pairs)
  • Heterozygous: budgie that has on a pair of chromosomes the character of a mutation on only one of the two chromosomes.
  • Chromosome: structure made up of DNA. Each of the chromosomes has a different shape.
  • Gene: detailed composition of the chromosome at a specific location
  • Phenotype: appearance. The set of observable characteristics of an individual. Thephenotypecorresponds to the realization of the genotype (gene expression).
  • Carrier: budgie that contains the character of a mutation, but it is not expressed visually (because it is heterozygous and the mutation is recessive).

We will therefore illustrate the parakeet and its pair of chromosomes carrying the mutation:


The dominant mutation A dominant mutation means that on the pair of chromosomes, only one can carry the mutation, the mutation dominates (despite the heterozygous appearance) and is therefore physically visible, on the parakeet concerned as on the offspring.

There is no “carrier” in dominant mutations, for the simple reason that the carrier will have the mutation that will be visible, and will take place in front of the recessive mutation.


Budgie mutations




The recessive

mutation A recessive
 mutation means that on the pair of chromosomes, it is imperative that both chromosomes are “carriers” of the same mutation for it to be physically expressed on the parakeet.
For example, two parakeets are mated each homozygous (the same character of the mutation on each chromosome (the pair), or vulgarly called “purebred”. One is blue (recessive mutation), and the other is “wild” green (dominant mutation). We obtain a generation of young who will all be of the “green” type (in the physical aspect) but they will each be carriers of the blue mutation (recessive). So they will be green parakeets carrying blue. Now let’s take a blue carrier green couple and mate them. We will obtain a generation of homozygous green Budgie (25%), blue carrier green parruchons (50%), and finally blue budgie (homozygous, 25%).


the Budgie mutations

couple Blue carrier green couple:
budgies mutations


mutations This mutation means that it is the sex of the bird that will determine the mutation. The transmission will be from the father to the daughter since it is the latter who has the two XX chromosomes. When a hereditary mutation related to sex appears, it will always be in a female that it will happen. And a female will never carry a sex-related mutation.
budgies parakeet mutations

mutations budgies

mutations budgies

The green mutation

Budgie Bird


The green mutation is the color closest to the natural color of wavy parakeets in the wild world. This is why green mutation wavy parakeets are commonly referred to as “wild” mutation. There are 3 green mutations: Light green  “wild” type, dark green, and olive green. It is the dark factor that will affect the color of the body of the budgie. If there is 0 dark factor = it gives a green (or light green, or “wild” type, bright color). If there is 1 dark factor it gives a dark green (green plus dark) and if there are 2 dark factors it gives an olive green (dull and deep color, olive green as the name suggests).


The blue mutation

Green Budgie And Blue Budgie


The Blue mutation appeared in 1881 in Holland, it is a recessive mutation. This mutation causes a total suppression of carotenoids (yellow), which is why the parakeet appears all blue, with a white mask (face, wing feathers), and the undulations are not altered. The spots are black and the ear spots are blue. There are three kinds of mutation blue (just like green). The parakeet that has the mutation with 0 dark factors is sky blue. With 1 dark factor, it is cobalt (darker blue), and with 2 dark factors, it is blue purple (the purple parakeet will have purple ear spots, unlike a gray one where the ear spots are gray-blue). These last two kinds (cobalt and purple, appeared in Green 1921 in France.



The gray mutation


budgie gray mutation


The grey mutation appeared in 1936 in Australia, it is a dominant mutation. This mutation also called “Australian gray” changes the color of the parakeet, which appears gray on a White base parakeet (blue), and khaki gray-green on a yellow base parakeet (green). Ear spots are gray-blue. The metrics change from the color blue (or green) to black color. If the parakeet is of a green base, it will give a gray-green (mustard), if the base is blue, it will be gray-blue on three possible tones: light gray for dark factor blue 0, smoky grey for dark factor 1 blue, and dark grey (anthracite) for dark factor 2.

The purple factor

The purple factor budgie mutations


It is a dominant heredity factor, which generates a wavy parakeet either mutated or non-carrier. There is no such thing as a purple wearer. For the color purple to be expressed, it is necessary that the wavy parakeet or blue, possesses a dark factor and a purple factor. It is therefore a Cobalt with a purple factor. On a budgie of the yellow base, the purple factor will not be visible, except for purple reflections at the level of the feathers of the cloaca.
On a wavy parakeet with a white base without this dark factor, we will speak of “purple blue”, which will have purple reflections distributed unevenly on the body.


Mutation Opaline


Opaline budgie mutation

This mutation originated in Australia in 1932 and subsequently appeared spontaneously in Europe. “Opaline” is a mutation that is added to the basic color mutations (green, blue, gray, purple) and so it exists on these different colors. At the physical aspect, it takes a trained eye to see the opaline. The mutation is sex-related, so it is necessary to mate a male carrier with an opaline-mutated female.
It will be considered that the mask extends to the entire head and the characteristic ripples are less extensive. The opaline mutation causes a decrease in melanin in certain parts of the body. The mutation forms an absent V of ripples on the upper back after the neck. In addition, the black beads of the mask are well-defined and larger. Sometimes they can form a Beaded necklace.


Dilute mutations

Dilute budgie mutations Dilute budgies mutations


The “diluted” mutation appeared in 1870 in Belgium. It is represented by a greater degree of dissolution of the color of the plumage of the wavy parakeet because the presence of melanin is weaker. In addition, the wing/body contrast will be very marked compared to a diluted non-mutated bird. When the wavy parakeet is mutated and diluted, its body appears lighter, and its bright wings with a brighter color.



Light wing mutation

(clear wings)
Light wing budgie mutation

Wavy parakeets carrying the “light wing” mutation will have yellow or white wings with feathers (long wing feathers) that appear light grey. Other writers (central retries, the top of the wings) are of a more normal color, that of the body. Ear spots are purple. Finally, the tone of the body color is barely lighter than if the parakeet were not a carrier of the mutation light wings, unlike wings that are well diluted, as well as the neck and head.

Grey wings Mutation


Grey wings budgie Mutation


Wavy parakeets carrying the mutation “gray wings” have pearls and undulations of a smoky gray. The tone of the body is diluted by half by the mutation, so as to be uniform. Large diets and retries appear gray, even slightly bluish.

Cinnamon mutation

Cinnamon budgie mutation


The mutation “cinnamon” or cinnamon appeared in England. It brings a fine plumage, drawn, with undulations with a glazed and shiny appearance. The spots will be brown cinnamon. In order not to confuse them with gray wings, observe the design of the wings and their undulation, the tone of the colors will be cinnamon brown. Another clue will be at the newborn, where are eye will be red and its eyelid pale, while at this age in the green specimen the eyelid is black. This mutation is related to sex.


Mutation Lutino

budgie Mutation Lutino


The Lutino mutation appeared in 1936 naturally in Australia, and in 1870 in a sought-after way in England. The Lutino parakeet is entirely yellow, with red eyes and no eye circle Yellow can be light, medium or dark (straw yellow, buttercup). There is a total disappearance of melanin, so ripples and spots do not appear, and spots Auricular are white. Its feathers and rectrices are lighter or even white. It is the absence of melanin that makes the parakeet yellow, blue does not appear, and only yellow subsists (for a green parakeet). Males, therefore, have pink wax. The mutation is related to sex.



Mutation Albino

Budgie Mutation Albino


The albino mutation appeared in 1992 in England. It is also a gender-related mutation. The parakeet is all white, with red eyes, without eye circles, without spots, and spots white little fingers. It is also a complete disappearance of melanin, which makes the blue base parakeet appear entirely white.

Iace wings or lacewing  mutation 

The lacewing mutation is related to sex and appeared in 1940 in England. The mutation causes a partial withdrawal of melanin in the plumage. The lacewing changes the design and natural colors of the wing feathers and leaves a central core composed of diluted melanin to brown color. This gives the appearance of relief, slight curves, discontinuous and symmetrical, brown in color, like lace. The eyes are red and the wax of the masks is pink.

The spangles mutation

spangles budgie mutation


The “pearl” mutation appeared in Australia in 1972, and it is a dominant mutation. The wing marks are discolored, retaining only thin oxidized borders. The spots are also devoid of melanin in their center. The design of the feathers resembles a series of dark borders in the light center, of different tones. The two-factor pearl mutation gives on The parakeets of the green series of fully yellow parakeets (with black eyes) and on the blue series an entirely white parakeet (with black eyes).


The yellow-faces mutation

yellow-faces budgie mutation

Yellow mask type I (MJI)

Yellow mask on face and secondary effects
Yellow mask type I Budgie mutations

Yellow mask type II (MJII)

Very bright and generalized yellow mask on the wings and on the body


The yellow mask mutation appeared in 1937 in England, it is a dominant mutation (semi-dominant for the MJI). This mutation brings the presence of a yellow mask, on any type of mutation of the parakeet, that is to say as much on a green parakeet (the mask will almost not be seen that the parakeet will already be mutated green and therefore yellow of the head) as on a blue parakeet, grey, etc. For the MJI, yellow is present on the face (mask) and feathers under the tail (secondary registers). For the MJII, the yellow is also generalized on the feathers (long wing feathers), on the wings, and on the upper body see more. There is also a third type of mask, called the “Australian Golden Mask“. There are few individuals in the Australian golden mask, a mask that is very bright, bright, and strong, and spread all over the body.


The Danish Pie mutation (recessive feet)

The Danish Pie budgie mutation


The Danish magpie mutation was born in 1932 in Denmark, it is a recessive mutation.
The Danish magpie mutation causes an absence of the eye circle and the eyes are black. The basic color is found on the lower half of the body, the remains of melanin being distributed irregularly on the back, wings, and neck which impacts the distribution of feather color and undulations. The wax is normal in the female but it is purplish pink in the male (pictured above). Finally, the spots are present from 1 to 6 instead of 6.



The Australian Pie mutation (dominant feet)

The Australian Pie budgie mutation

The Australian magpie mutation was born in 1929 in England, then in 1935 naturally in Australia. The mutation is characterized by a lack of local pigmentation, so the color is distributed per spot on the chest randomly. The Australian magpie mutation is characterized by the presence of a clear spot on the nape, the persistence of the white eye circle (unlike in Danish magpies), feathers and rectrices will be generally clear, and spots and purple ear spots will be retained. It is possible that the wavy parakeet wears the double factor of the Australian magpie mutation, i.e. 2 Australian magpie genes, therefore, the ripples almost disappear on the entire parakeet.


The Dutch Pie mutation and Clearflight and Clear body


Light penne parakeets are predominantly heredity: only the seven primary feathers and large tail feathers are clear and this is added to a light spot behind the neck. Thus a pale pennies wavy parakeet has feathers and clear retorts.

The Dutch magpie mutation is characterized by the color of the mask (which is the base color) that goes down quite low on the chest. Dutch magpies also have feathers and the bottom of the wings light, as well as the characteristic spot at the back of the head As with Australian magpies, the double factors Dutch magpies are almost entirely devoid of ripples.


The Ardulate Mutation (Slate)

The Ardulate budgie Mutation


The slate mutation appeared in 1930. The slate mutation produces a dark gray bluish with heterogeneous colorations. The darkness of the slate varies slightly depending on the dark factor of the parakeet. The ear spots are blue-violet, and the dark factor is expressed on the slate.

The Cremino or Ivory mutation

The Cremino or Ivory mutation


The Cremino or Ivory mutation is the association between the Albino mutation and the Yellow Mask. The mask and feathers (very slightly) are yellow, with a very white body, sometimes spotted with yellow in unexpected places.

The blackface mutation or black