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Yellow-tailed Black-Cockatoo


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Yellow-tailed Black-Cockatoo

Calyptorhynchus funereus Scientific name definitions

  • LC Least Concern
  • Names (15)
  • Subspecies (3)

Identification

55–60 cm; 610–900 g. Male  body plumage dusky black 

© Tony PalliserBlue Mountains, New South Wales, Australia 29 Mar 2012Macaulay Library ML 205723951eBird S65131044

with upper body and wing-covert feathers finely edged buff; yellow ear-covert patch; broad yellow band  in tail  spotted dark brown, with central two feathers all black; bill dark grey, feet grey-brown; eye dark brown with pink periophthalmic ring. Female  as male, but cheek patch brighter and bigger; bill bone-coloured; periophthalmic skin 

© David taylorSunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia 01 Jan 2009Macaulay Library ML 205601501eBird S65117206

dark grey. Immature as adult female. Race xanthanota smaller in wing and tail; race whiteae differs from xanthanota 

© Ken HavardKingborough, Tasmania, Australia 29 Oct 2008Macaulay Library ML 204459851eBird S64994696

essentially only in width of maxilla.

Systematics History

Editor’s Note: This article requires further editing work to merge existing content into the appropriate Subspecies sections. Please bear with us while this update takes place.Closely related to Z. baudinii and Z. latirostris; has been considered conspecific with latter, and occasionally with former. S races whiteae and xanthanota considered by some possibly to represent a separate species. Tasmanian race sometimes listed erroneously as xanthanotus or xanthonotus, but original spelling as given below is correct. Three subspecies recognized.

Subspecies


SUBSPECIES

Calyptorhynchus funereus funereus Scientific name definitions

C. f. funereus+1

Distribution

EC Queensland (Emerald) S to E Victoria, in SE Australia.


SUBSPECIES

Calyptorhynchus funereus whiteae Scientific name definitions

Distribution

Eyre Peninsula (SC South Australia) E, including Kangaroo I, to S Victoria.


SUBSPECIES

Calyptorhynchus funereus xanthanotus Scientific name definitions

C. f. xanthanotus

Distribution

Tasmania and islands in Bass Strait.

Distribution

Editor’s Note: Additional distribution information for this taxon can be found in the ‘Subspecies’ article above. In the future we will develop a range-wide distribution article.

Habitat

Coastal heath, woodland  , forest; also pine  plantations along coast and on adjoining Great Dividing Range.

Movement

Poorly known or understood; nominate race tends to wander nomadically in parties of 10–20 birds when not breeding. Birds of race xanthanota  sometimes congregate in large flocks of up to 100 to feed on exotic pine cones.

Diet and Foraging

Nominate race 

© Lindsay HanschEurobodalla, New South Wales, Australia 12 Jan 2011Macaulay Library ML 204348241eBird S64978447

eats 

© Nicholas TalbotTweed, New South Wales, Australia 23 Oct 2011Macaulay Library ML 205580341eBird S65117397

both seeds 

© David taylorSunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia 01 Jan 2009Macaulay Library ML 205601491eBird S65117206

and insect larvae  , the latter extracted in specialized manner  from infested Eucalyptus and Acacia saplings, using elongated upper mandible; initially a “chopping board” of bark is stripped to provide platform on which bird stands in order to excavate cossid moth larvae from stems of saplings. Race xanthanota is primarily seed-eater, and large flocks feed on cones of exotic Pinus radiata plantations, tearing the cones apart.

Sounds and Vocal Behavior

Commonest call is a diagnostic overslurred plaintive wail ending in a harsher tone “wheEEeargh”, given in flight and when perched. While feeding, birds in a group utter several grating and squealing notes. Alarm call a harsh screech. Immatures utter a repeated very grating nasal “rrrruh”.

Breeding

Breeds Apr–Jul in N Australia; Jan–May in N New South Wales; Dec–Feb in S New South Wales; and Oct–Mar in South Australia, Victoria and Tasmania. Nest is bed of woodchips in large tree-hollow. Two eggs  ; incubation 28–29 days, by female only; chick has long, dense yellow down; usually only one nestling survives; fed by both parents, and leaves the hollow after three months, remaining with parents until at least next breeding season.

Conservation Status

Conservation status on BirdlifeLC Least Concern

Not globally threatened. CITES II. As with most other cockatoos, long-term existence depends on the continued availability of hollow trees for nesting in. No race currently considered to be threatened, and all have adapted to recent developments in their habitat, namely eucalypt and pine plantations.


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